Timely completion of graduate studies at African universities: Eduardo Mondlane University on track

In November 2016, Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique (UEM), a member of the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM) and part of the consortium implementing the Inter-University Cooperation to Train Crop Scientists for African Agriculture (CSAA) Project funded through the European Union Intra-ACP Academic Mobility Programme, reached a remarkable milestone by graduating nine students with a Master’s Degree in Crop Protection within the prescribed period of two years. Of these students, six were funded by the Intra ACP Academic Mobility Programme, two by RUFORUM and one by the Belgian Cooperation. The students graduated upon successfully completing one year of coursework and a subsequent year of academic research.


Pacesetters: L-R: Joseph Kisitu, Benedict Ssekyanzi, Emmanuel Zuza, Ronald Kityo, Elias Oyesigye & Moses Otuba; some of the students who completed the MSc in Crop Protection at Eduardo Mondlane University in 2016

The Master’s in Crop Protection programme at UEM was launched in 2011 and has been running every two years since then. This cohort was the first to enroll international students and a run a curriculum simultaneously in English and Portuguese since the launch of the programme.

The timely graduation of students by Eduardo Mondlane University highlights some of the quiet success stories at African universities and demonstrates that it is possible to graduate students on time in these institutions, a factor that is important raising credibility and attracting students. Moreover, achieving this success on an international programme illustrates that language barriers can be successfully overcome.


eliasElias Oyesigye was born in Isingiro District in Western Uganda. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Agriculture (Crop option) from Makerere University. Elias previously worked with USAID Agriculture and Nutrition Project as a Regional Monitoring Associate in charge of monitoring project work and providing agricultural technical support in six districts of Uganda. Despite his success at this job, Elias was passionate about research and decided to forego his job for further studies.

In 2014, he was admitted at Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique where he pursued a Master of Science in Crop Protection and graduated on 25th November 2016. Elias’ studies were funded through a scholarship from the Intra-ACP Mobility Programme. He also received support from the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM) for his field attachment under the RUFORUM Field Attachment Program Award (FAPA). His research focused on Evaluation of cassava genotypes for resistance and genetic diversity in relation to Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD) in Mozambique. CBSD is currently the most devastating disease of cassava in Mozambique, but through his breakthrough research, Elias was able to identify CBSD resistant and tolerant varieties. He has also set up a platform for breeding CBSD resistant varieties in Mozambique. Elias’ research has not only benefited affected communities, but also strengthened the regional cassava germplasm exchange programme.  Contact: eliasogye@gmail.com

benedictBenedict Ssekyanzi was born in Kiboga District in Central Uganda. He holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Agriculture (Crop Science option) from Makerere University, a Postgraduate Diploma in Project Planning and Management from Uganda Management Institute, and a Master’s Degree in Crop Protection from Eduardo Mondlane University.  He previously worked as an Agricultural Officer in Kiboga District, for seven years, after which he served as District Coordinator for the National Agricultural Advisory Service (NAADS) for close to six years.

For his Master’s Degree in Crop Protection, Benedict was sponsored by the Intra-ACP Mobility Programme. His research was on Abundance and distribution of species of Derbidae family on coconut and their association with coconut lethal yellowing disease and was conducted in Inhambane Province in the southern part of Mozambique. Benedict chose to work on a crop that is not common in his home country, Uganda, because the causative agent of the coconut disease affects more than 200 plant species. The knowledge and skills acquired can thus be applied in studies involving other crops. If adopted, the results of his master’s research will contribute to the journey towards economical and sustainable management of coconut lethal yellowing disease in Mozambique where 14-30% of the population derives their livelihood from the crop. Contact: ssekyanzibenedict@gmail.com

ronaldRonald Kityo hails from Wakiso District in Central Uganda. He holds a Bachelor of Science Degree in Horticulture from Makerere University and a Master of Science Degree in Crop Protection from Eduardo Mondlane University. Previously, he worked as an Agricultural Advisory Service Provider for crops under the National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS) Programme in Uganda and, prior to that, as a Field Based Consultant with Bioversity Uganda in charge of establishing and managing the Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW) escaping germplasm trials in East Africa and the Horn of Africa. He also served as a member of the District Adaptive Research Support Team, Kyankwanzi District under the Agricultural Technology and Agribusiness Advisory Services (ATAAS). Ronald has also worked with farmers’ cooperatives in Mubende and Kyankwanzi districts. To advance his technical skills and competence, he pursued the Master of Science Degree in Crop Protection at Eduardo Mondlane University, with sponsorship from the European Commission under the Inter-University Cooperation to Train Crop Scientists for African Agriculture (CSAA) Project.  He also received support from RUFORUM for his field attachment through the competitive Field Attachment Program Award (FAPA). His research focused on Evaluation of the occurrence of parasitoids associated with the invasive coconut whitefly (Aleurotrachelus atratus) in Inhambane Province, southern Mozambique. The study gave recommendations that, if adopted, will set the ground for sustainable management of the invasive coconut whitefly in Mozambique and other coconut growing areas in Africa. Contact: ronaldkityo@gmail.com

josephJoseph Kisitu was born in Uganda’s capital city, Kampala. He holds a Bachelor of Science in Agriculture from Makerere University in Uganda. Joseph has worked as an agronomist at Sunshine Agro-products- a cocoa, banana, herbs and spices producing company in Mpigi District in Central Uganda. He also worked as a Voluntary Research Assistant at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture in Namulonge, Uganda, and on a number of short term contracts on research and data collection in various organizations.

In a bid to upgrade his professional profile, Joseph pursued a Master of Science in Crop Protection at Eduardo Mondlane University, under scholarship from the European Commission funded Inter-University Cooperation to Train Crop Scientists for African Agriculture (CSAA). To support his research, Joseph also received support from the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM) through the Field Attachment Program Award. Joseph’s research centred on the Distribution and characterization of cowpea genotypes for resistance to root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). The study provided recommendations that will help in reducing cowpea yield loss due to rootknot nematode infection. Contact:  jspkst@gmail.com

mosesMoses Amugoli Otuba was born in Bukedea District in Eastern Uganda, and obtained his Bachelor of Agriculture degree from Gulu University in the northern part of the country. He previously worked with the National Agriculture Advisory Services (NAADS) in Kaabong District in the semi-arid Karamoja Region, and at the National Semi-Arid Resources Research Institute in Serere District in Eastern Uganda. Moses received a scholarship from the Intra-ACP Mobility Project to undertake a Master of Science in Crop Protection degree at Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique. He graduated in November 2016. His research focused on the Diversity of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense in Mozambique and associated in-vitro response to fungicides, bio-control agents and phenolic compounds. This research was supported with a grant in form of a Field Attachment Program Award (FAPA) from the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM), and provided recommendations that lay ground for the management of Panama disease in Mozambique. Contact: mozes.otuba@gmail.com

emmanuelEmmanuel Zuza grew up in rural Southern Malawi, where his university fees was paid through proceeds from the sale of groundnuts, maize, soybeans and pigeon peas grown on the family farm. He served as a Project Coordinator with the National Smallholder Farmers Association of Malawi (NASFAM), working with women smallholder farmers to produce safe groundnuts in Malawi. While at NASFAM, he realized there was a knowledge gap in aflatoxin management- one of the major concerns in safe production of groundnuts- and sought to fill in this gap. The opportunity came in form of a scholarship from the Intra-ACP Mobility Project to study for a Master’s Degree in Crop Protection at Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique. Groundnut is the third most important crop in Mozambique after maize and cassava, occupying the largest area among the grain legumes in the country. He followed his interest and focused his research on Evaluating the effect of various groundnut harvesting dates and drying methods on the prevention of aflatoxin contamination. This research was funded through a Field Attachment Program Award (FAPA) from the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM). The study recommended the training of farmers on timely harvesting of their groundnuts as harvesting too early or too late often results in higher levels of aflatoxin contamination. It also recommended that farmers should be discouraged from drying their groundnuts on bare soil. Contact: manzyzuzajnr@gmail.com

massambyAndreia Mahalia Maulide Massamby was born in Maputo, Mozambique. She obtained a Bachelor in Agricultural Engineering from Eduardo Mondlane University in 2014. Upon completion of her undergraduate studies, Andreia commenced a two-year master´s degree with a scholarship funded by the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM) through a Graduate Research Grant awarded to Dr Domingos Cugala. Andreia has acquired skills in the field of crop protection with particular emphasis in entomology. Her research focused on the Assessment of distribution and pest status of papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus) and prediction of potential areas at risk of invasion using ecological niche model in Mozambique. She anticipates that this research will contribute to increasing papaya production among smallholder farmer production systems through strategic reduction of P. marginatus population density and associated pest damage. Contact: andreia.massamby@gmail.com

miguelOlzura da Encarnação Miguel was born in Maputo, Mozambique and has a zeal to champion change among smallholder farmers in Mozambique as a mechanism to contributing economic growth, better livelihoods and sustainable development. Olzura holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Agronomic Engineering and a Master’s in Crop Protection, both from Eduardo Mondlane University. For her master’s degree, she merited a scholarship funded by RUFORUM through a Graduate Research Grant awarded to Dr Domingos Cugala of Eduardo Mondlane University. Her research focused on Establishment, assessment and impact of exotic parasitoids on the population of the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus. This study was designed as a response to the recent outbreak of papaya mealybug which had devastating impacts in Mozambique. The control mechanisms available at the time, such as the chemical control approaches were, however, not economically viable for the smallholder farmers that constitute the majority of papaya producers. Her study thus investigated the alternative approach of using natural and/or biological control that was seen as a more economically and environmentally viable strategy for the suppression of this pest, in order to provide information for evidence-based decision making. Contact: zuramiguel@gmail.com

luisLuis Bota comes from a farming family in the city of Beira, Central Mozambique where he was born and completed his secondary school education. He later obtained a Bachelor’s Degree in Agricultural Engineering from University of Eduardo Mondlane in 2010. Luis has always had a passion for agriculture. After completing his bachelor’s degree, he started working as Coordinator of a Project for Soybean Promotion in Nhamatanda District in Central Mozambique. In 2011, he moved on to the Directorate of Agriculture in the Province of Manica as the focal point of fruit fly activities including monitoring and management. After the first fruit fly laboratory in Mozambique was constructed in Manica, he was appointed as the Head of the Laboratory. Here, the main activity was the mass rearing of fruit flies (Bactrocera dorsalis) and parasitoids (Diachasmimorpha longicaudata and Fopius arisanus) for biological control. In 2015, Luis received a scholarship from the Belgian Cooperation to study for a Master’s in Crop Protection at Eduardo Mondlane University. His research aimed at Evaluating the spatio-temporal microdynamic of fruit flies on a mango orchard in Central Mozambique. The results of this study will help mango farmers to optimize the management of fruit flies by controlling where and when the flies appear.  In a rare feat, Luis completed his master’s degree within 18 months; six months ahead of time. He is back in Manica and resumed his job as head of the fruit fly laboratory. Contact: luisbota@yahoo.com.br


luisaDr Luisa A. Santos holds a PhD in Entomology, a Master’s Degree in Applied Entomology and a Bachelor’s in Agronomy. She is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry Engineering of Eduardo Mondlane University (EMU) and has more than 30 years of university teaching experience in agricultural entomology and integrated pest management. Her research and extension activities have focused on the design and implementation of integrated pest management programs with the main objective of developing, testing and disseminating integrated pest management practices (in cotton, maize, cabbage, coconut, among other crops) for small scale farmers in Mozambique. From 2001 to 2004, she collaborated with the Ministry of Higher Education Science and Technology of Mozambique, and she chaired a national committee responsible for the design and introduction of a National System of Quality Assurance for the Higher Education Sector in Mozambique. She also chaired the national commission that led to the creation of three polytechnic institutes in Manica, Tete and Gaza in Mozambique. From 2011 to 2014, she served as Coordinator of the Centre for Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Studies (CEAGRE) at the Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry Engineering of EMU. Currently, she is the Quality Assurance Office Director of EMU, a position she has held since May 2013. Contact: luisasantos47@gmail.com

ana-mariaAna Maria da Graça Mondjana, a Mozambican citizen, holds a PhD and MSc degree in Plant Pathology from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA, and a BSc (Honors) degree in Agronomy from Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM). She has extensive experience in teaching at graduate and post-graduate levels, in management, as well as in basic and applied research and extension. She has been a faculty member at the Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry Engineering at UEM since 1983, where she has been teaching college and post-graduate courses in Plant Pathology and related areas and she had supervised various BSc, MSc and PhD students. During her career, she has held several responsibilities outside academic work and occupied various management positions at the faculty and university level. From 2011 to 2016 she served as Vice-Rector for Academic Affairs at Eduardo Mondlane University and had previously been the Dean for Research of UEM. In relation to research, she led a considerable number of national and regional research projects, with emphasis on plant disease epidemiology and control strategies, from which several publications (as author and co-author) were produced. She has also served in various national and international scientific committees. Contact: anamondjana@gmail.com


Dr Domingos Cugala was born in Chemba, Sofala Province in Mozambique. He holds a BSc (honours) in Agronomy from Eduardo Mondlane University and is also an alumnus of University of Zimbabwe and Kenyatta University with academic training in Crop Protection (entomology and biological control of invasive insect species). Due to the research done under the RUFORUM grant for the MSc programme, Dr Cugala joined the group of scientists working on biological control of insect pests and was then selected for a doctoral research fellowship under the African Regional Postgraduate Programme in Insect Sciences (ARPPIS) based at the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe). Currently, he is a senior lecturer and researcher at the Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agronomy and Forest Engineering at Eduardo Mondlane University where he teaches courses in Agricultural Entomology, Agricultural pest management, Biological Control, Scientific Research Methods and Insect Ecology. He has won two competitive research grants from RUFORUM, which he led as a Principal Investigator; first in 2010 (3 students were graduated). In 2012, one of his students was awarded one of the 10 best posters during the RUFORUM Biennial Conference. Dr Cugala has had an illustrious career in research and development in agricultural pest management focusing on sustainable management of invasive insect species. He has participated in more than 16 national, regional and international research projects where he acted as coordinator. Dr Cugala has authored over 30 papers published in scientific journals and conference proceedings, and prepared several scientific reports. Contact: dcugala@gmail.com

ameliaDr Amelia Jorge Sidumo  is a lecturer in the Department of Crop Protection, at the Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry Engineering at Eduardo Mondlane University (FAFE-EM) and head of the department. She holds a PhD in Agronomy with a minor in Agricultural Economics from Texas Tech University in the USA and a Master’s degree in Entomology, with a minor in Geographic Information Systems from Cornell University. Currently, she is also the Country Coordinator for the Better Cotton Initiative, a programme aimed at boosting the economic, environmental and social sustainability of the cotton sector through providing technical assistance to the Cotton Institute of Mozambique and other cotton subsector stakeholders. She has designed and led the implementation of many research projects on pest management in Mozambique, including the pilot project for the Integrated Pest Management of Cotton Pests, a collaboration between FAFE-EM, the Cotton Institute of Mozambique, the Mozambican Agrarian Research Institute and the cotton concessions, with funding from the World Bank. In addition to research, she has also engaged in several consultancies; conducting project baseline surveys and assessments of agricultural projects and programmes including the Final evaluation of the first phase of national agriculture development programme PROAGRI I (1999-2005) where she was responsible for research and extension, and human resources case studies. She has published more than five articles in peer reviewed journals. Contact: asidumo2@gmail.com

bilaDr João Bila holds a PhD in Plant Pathology from the Swedish Agricultural University of Sciences, an MSc in Agricultural Development with a major in plant protection from University of Copenhagen, and a BSc in Agronomy from Eduardo Mondlane University (EMU). Since 2005, he has been a lecturer at the Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry Engineering at EMU where he is involved in teaching, research and rural extension activities.  As a lecturer, he has been teaching undergraduate and graduate courses in plant pathology, biological control of pests and diseases; integrated management of pest and diseases, seed pathology and plant protection. His research and extension interests have mainly been focused on the epidemiology and management of plant diseases including: coconut lethal yellowing disease, cabbage black rot disease, fungal pathogens and mycotoxins associated with peanuts and maize grains, cashew anthracnose disease, Tomato curly stunt leaf disease, cashew-nut and soybean diseases. He is member of a number of international scientific and professional organizations including the African Crop Science Society, Pathway Evaluation and Pest Risk Management in Transport (PERMIT), COGENT International Thematic Action Group on Phytopathology and coconut germplasm movements and the International Phytoplasma Working Group. Dr Bila has authored more than five articles in peer reviewed journals. Contact: jbilay@gmail.com

Partnership to transform agricultural education

By Munyaradzi Makoni, University World News

A ground-breaking partnership between the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM) and The MasterCard Foundation is aiming to strengthen efforts to revamp the agriculture curriculum across Africa.

It is seeking to transform agriculture into a vibrant sector linked to African universities that can produce high-performing graduates and high-quality research.

The eight-year programme backed with US$27.1 million from The MasterCard Foundation was launched during the Fifth African Higher Education Week and the RUFORUM Biennial Conference held from 17-21 October at the Century City Conference Centre, Cape Town, South Africa.

Aligned to the anticipated boost in agriculture, the meeting, attended by vice-chancellors from more than 60 universities in Africa, among the 700 delegates, had as its theme, “Linking agricultural universities with the civil society, the private sector, governments and other stakeholders in support of agricultural development”.

New agriculture model

“This is an exciting opportunity for RUFORUM to strengthen agriculture in Africa, by connecting to empower all players, learning institutions, agriculture communities and the private sector to connect knowledge needed to boost the sector,” Peter Materu, director, education and learning, The MasterCard Foundation, told University World News.

There has been a lot of knowledge that has not been connected for the benefit of society, said Materu, adding that smallholder farmers will be the main feature of this programme as they have often been left out in the past. Also, rising food demands make urban agriculture even more necessary.

A new agriculture curriculum for universities was critical in absorbing and feeding the burgeoning youthful population across the continent, he said.

There were a lot of young people between 15 and 24 years of age in Africa, a figure expected to double by 2050, pushing the demand for jobs and food even higher. The most affected were typically the poor youth, he said. At a time when urban migration and youth poverty in urban centres are increasing because economies in countries are not growing, agriculture could be a solution to the problem.

“There is a need to do more to increase the productivity of agriculture and the universities have a role to play,” said Materu, adding that connecting university education to the needs of the agriculture communities to meaningfully contribute to Africa’s growth and development was never more relevant than now.

The curriculum will have to be tailored to meet these needs, he said, and a lot of knowledge exists on how communities, universities and industry can best interact, but much of the knowledge is not fully utilised on how these groups can work together to strengthen agriculture.

RUFORUM has a network that supports some universities and it will reach many more universities and also attract other institutions, said Materu.

“We anticipate that RUFORUM will be open to knowledge from institutions in the world that have been working with communities in agriculture so that we can fast-track this training,” he said.

The practical component will be stronger in the programme as students will have the opportunity to work with farmers in the community, Materu added. “Studying and working in an environment in which the farmers work will help famers to improve,” he said.

Recruitment of students

Dr Anthony Egeru, Regional Coordinator of The MasterCard Foundation and RUFORUM project, said the recruitment of students with a passion for agriculture starts in December and selected students will go through orientation for a month in June-July before university starts.

A total of 210 students, 110 undergraduates and 110 postgraduates, who are from economically disadvantaged backgrounds will be trained. 70% of recruits will come from countries where early adopter universities of the new model are based and 30% are expected to come from countries that are in difficult circumstances.

“They will strive for gender equity, with 60% of women being recruited,” Materu said.

Gulu University in Uganda and Egerton University in Kenya have been named the early adopters of the programme.

“These universities have already been collecting information and researching the needs of farming communities and educating students while they work with farmers, which made them a leading choice to run the pilot,” said Egeru.

Yet another opportunity for transformative action research will come from using the expanded RUFORUM Community Action Research Programme, or CARP, to enrich university-led community impact. CARP will extend to include technical and vocational education and training institutions to improve joint work between colleges and universities.

Transformation through internationalisation

The initial focus of the programme is not about internationalisation of higher education but making sure African universities have greater focus on meaningful contribution to development, said Egeru.

But internationalisation will occur through the knowledge transfer process as the programmes developed by Gulu and Egerton universities scale up, he explained.

To enrich the programme, partnerships will be forged with various global institutions that are running advanced programmes similar to those under discussion, such as Earth University in Costa Rica, Entrepreneurship for Impact Foundation based in Italy and Harvard University.

“So parts of the programme will begin to internationalise even if it is just for the content of one course,” Egeru said, adding that the idea is to ensure that students will benefit from leadership training that will make them the next generation of agricultural leaders.

He said the key component of entrepreneurship will be strengthened in universities, through a competitive entrepreneurship challenge fund, and this will be done in a way that allows students to write and test their business proposals.

“The students will not only become thought leaders, they will become part of the key component on entrepreneurship which will extend to universities through the entrepreneurship challenge fund, which will catalyse entrepreneurship training in universities,” Egeru told University World News.

The fund will cater for learning experiences that simulate a real business environment and so students will learn about issues such as how to pay tax and the ethics of doing business.

He added that a portion of the US$27.1 million will be open to other universities through a challenge fund to offer the same type of training.

The MasterCard Foundation has invested US$300 million in agriculture-related programmes across Africa, as RUFORUM positions itself to share best practices in Africa. Materu said: “We in the Foundation take agriculture seriously as it has the potential to secure jobs for the young and secure livelihoods for the future.”

This article has been sourced from http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20161026142339345

The future of university funding and the Private Sector

rb2The factors needed for increased innovation at university level were discussed on Wednesday as the 5th African Higher Education Week and RUFORUM Biennial Conference 2016 entered its second day.

Acknowledging the importance of attracting private sector support, the day kicked off with a session titled Linking Universities with Private Sector for agri-business innovations.

Although the benefits – funding and outcome-based research – were obvious, some delegates pointed out that it would require institutions of higher learning to be more sensitive to the needs of business.

Keynote speaker NORAD  Director General Dr. Jon Lomoy acknowledged the important role that universities will play in shaping a prosperous future for Africa, but said the continent needs to be prepared to invest in institutions of higher learning.

“There is an enormous need to lift African investment in knowledge creation, in research and development,” he told delegates.

He warned that finding the funds won’t be easy, that it will likely require political battles and higher taxes, as well as increased reliance on funding from private sources.

This set the tone for the conversation that followed, in which Prof. Margaret Kamar, Consultant with Global Leaders Consultancy and Former Kenyan Cabinet Minister for Higher Education, Science and Technology, appealed to vice chancellors to take leadership in promoting the relationship between universities and industry.

She further argued for the private sector to be involved in shaping curricula to promote research with an end product in mind as opposed to research for research’s sake.

Mr. Hugh Campbell, General Manager of HORTGRO Science South Africa, made the case for organisations that act as a middleman between the private sector and universities.

He told delegates when you link in with an industry that has specific objectives, you need to have objective-based research and encouraged them to consider mutual benefit and relevance when building a relationship with a business.

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African universities need bankable ideas

Copyright: Betty Press / Panos

Copyright: Betty Press / Panos

African universities face huge, intersecting challenges. As a result, they are struggling to adapt.

Firstly, enrolments are rising without universities increasing their capacities to deliver quality education aligned to the continent’s needs.

Secondly, raising revenue through fees clearly isn’t the answer to funding shortfalls: the policy of co-financing education through tuition fees has failed to yield enough money over the years. Instead, private universities have mushroomed, mostly offering arts-based courses, which are cheaper to run. Public universities have also ramped up arts course enrolments at the expense of science, technology, engineering and mathematics. [1]

A related consequence is that staff are overburdened by their teaching loads and pay little attention to research. This is partly why Sub-Saharan Africa produces only one per cent of all global research. [2]

Thirdly, the introduction of tuition fees that began in the 1990s has continued to lock out poorer students who cannot pay. This amounts to lost talent the continent desperately needs.

The answer may lie in shaking up how universities approach businesses, including informal ones. Universities will be better able to make meaningful contributions to society by working with the private sector to develop innovations people actually need and want.
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