Neglected Insects as a remedy for food insecurity: the case of crickets


By Carolyne Kipkoech, PhD student at Jomo Kenyatta University of Science and Technology

Carolyne Kipkoech, PhD student at Jomo Kenyatta University of Science and Technology

Carolyne Kipkoech, PhD student at Jomo Kenyatta University of Science and Technology

I am a Kenyan national, with a Bachelor’s degree in Microbiology from Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) where I graduated in 2005. I always had a passion for disease prevention, which is why I later studied a Master of Science in Immunology at Moi University where I graduated in 2009.  After my master’s degree, I worked with the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) Programme. This exposed me to the broader field of Public Health, although still with a focus on disease prevention though improved nutrition.

In 2015, I merited a scholarship under the Danish Agency for International Development through GREEiNSECT to undertake a PhD in Food Science and Nutrition at JKUAT. For my thesis research, I am working on “Use of edible cricket to improve child nutrition in Kenya”. My inspiration for this topic was derived from the fact that house crickets (Acheta domesticus), common across Africa, are a highly valuable yet neglected source of proteins.

Insects are a delicacy in many parts of the world, including Africa, but for many communities in Africa they do not constitute a main diet. Crickets in particular have higher quality animal protein than some conventional sources, such as fish, and are more affordable among poor communities.  Additionally, they thrive in various environmental conditions -including dry areas, they multiply in a short span of two months, use very little space, and feed on organic waste that they then turn into high quality protein. They can thus be a viable solution to food security challenges. Given the nutritional importance of crickets and other edible insects, I am keen, as a young researcher, to build a research agenda on the use of insects as food.

When I started my research on crickets, many friends and colleagues at the university wondered what I was up to. To them it was a laughing matter. Nonetheless, I soldiered on and the first time I harvested crickets, everyone I run in to on campus stopped to look. I smiled as I proudly showed off the crickets and some even followed me to the lab to see what I would do next.

Once at the lab, I dipped one part of the crickets into hot water for one minute and then sun-dried them to be later ground for use in making porridge, cookies and other sweet delicacies. The other part I deep-fried to get crispy crickets that would be eaten whole by those brave enough. To my surprise, the deep fried crickets were everyone’s favourite because of their delicious aroma and taste.

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The biggest endorsement of our cricket products happened during the Sixth Tokyo International Conference of Africa’s Development (TICAD) held in Nairobi in 2016. At a conference pre-event hosted at JKUAT, the Vice Chancellor invited the conference participants to sample our crickets. You would not believe what happened after the invitation; everyone was keen to sample the crickets! They tasted not once, not twice, but took several helpings until there was no more! The enthusiastic reception of the cricket meal could have also been due to the presence of participants from different countries, continents and cultures, some of whom had tasted cricket before and helped to demystify their consumption as food.

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After this exposition, the crickets were on high demand in JKUAT and its environs and the story made news in the Kenyan media.

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With the increasing global population, one of the strategies to improve food and nutrition security is to diversify diets using available food sources. We actually have plenty of food around us, but we do not exploit it. I look forward to the day when crickets will be widely accepted across cultures in Africa and world over as part of the daily diet so that more people will get access to quality cheap protein.

Kenya is already taking maiden steps towards exploiting the high protein value of crickets by using it to address child malnutrition. A pilot initiative in Uasin Gishu County, is currently providing cricket porridge to school going children between the ages of three and five years. It is my wish that other countries and communities will follow suit and make use of this wonder food.

Both Jomo Kenyatta University of Science and Technology (JKUAT) and Moi University that the writer attended, are members of the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM). RUFORUM is a Network of 66 universities in 26 countries in Africa. Carolyn Kipkoech can be contacted on: kipkoechcarolyne@gmail.com or carokoech@yahoo.com

 

Enhancing Collaboration and Quality in Postgraduate Training: Joint Module Training Delivery in RUFORUM Regional Programmes


In its efforts to strengthen the quality of post graduate training programmes and partnerships, RUFORUM and the member universities are using a combination of innovative approaches in the curriculum design and delivery of the regional postgraduate training programmes. A case is the RUFORUM multidisciplinary PhD programme in Agriculture Rural Innovation (ARI) which is hosted simultaneously by three RUFORUM member universities (Makerere University- Uganda, Egerton University – Kenya and Sokoine University of Agriculture – Tanzania) using same curriculum and content. The PhD ARI Program is implemented in collaboration with three other European universities namely Montpellier Sup Agro in France, Wagenigen University in the Netherlands and University of Copenhagen in Denmark.

With financial support from Carnegie Cooperation of New York, RUFORUM supported the joint implementation of field based module on Participatory Methods and Action Research for innovation in livelihoods and agricultural systems offered under the  PhD Agricultural and Rural Innovations (ARI). This module is unique in delivery as it brings together students from the three universities in Africa and three universities in Europe to a Common facility.  This year’s field training took place in Rakai District in Uganda. A total of 18 students and five academic staff from the consortium spent two weeks in the field to learn together with farming communities. The students were from Africa (DRC, Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda); Europe (France and Spain); and Latin America (Guatemala). Female participants represented 31.6%. The diversity of students and staff was a learning resource that enabled substantial cross learning and complementarity of skills.

Above: PhD students in Rakai Working with Communities

Above: PhD students in Rakai Working with Communities

The joint module provides valuable insights on how scientists could engage with communities to undertake research for development. This gives opportunities to students to rethink and nest their research into development challenges of communities as well as apply some of the tools learnt in their own research.

Below there is an anecdotal testimony from one of the students of the field module: “The course offers a different approach to research diversity such as agro-ecological zonation, farm strategy model, and innovation histories as an alternative to statistical representativeness. The most exciting are the hands-on tools and combined approaches such as the use of GPS, GIS, Innovation Histories and Trends which we used to comprehensively understand the communities and their livelihood dynamics. At the end of the course we had an exciting feedback session to provide insights on possible innovative solutions for improving livelihood of these communities. It was good to note the keen interest of the NGOs and policy makers working in the area to take on the suggestions and implement them. I also appreciated an opportunity for co-learning, experience sharing, and team work with fellow classmates from various countries and cultures”.  Mrs. Dorcas Loga Okello

A number of spillover effects have emerged for this arrangement which include; opportunities for joint supervisor of the students by European and African staff hence sustaining partnerships, cross cultural learning, assured consistent quality of the ARI brand (student) across the participating universities. Click here to read more.

RUFORUM student wins award during the NARO-MAK Conference, 2016


Above: Boris Alladassi receiving his award as Dr. Imeda (center) look on Prof. Bashasa (Right)

Above: Boris Alladassi receiving his award as Dr. Imeda (center) look on Prof. Bashasa (Right)

Boris M. Alladassi a RUFORUM sponsored student from Benin emerged among the three overall winners in the category of Poster presentation. His research presentation focused on “Screening common bean germplasm for leaf and pod resistance to common bacteria blight in Uganda”. RUFORUM supported eighteen international students to participate in the conference as part of research dissemination, mentorship and networking.

The participating students expressed the benefits of the  NARO-MAK Conference  as echoed by Mr. Emmanuel Kodwo Mensah that “this opportunity has allowed me to form new networks for collaboration with other persons and institutions across Africa and beyond”. Emmanuel’s participation and that of other international students increased the inter-cultural diversity of the NARO-MAK Conference, 2016.

Above: Mensah Emmanuel during his presentation at the NAROMAK conference, 2016

Above: Mensah Emmanuel during his presentation at the NAROMAK conference, 2016

The Conference attracted close to 400 participants and was organized by the National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO) and Makerere University under the theme “Agricultural Research and Innovation for Socio-Economic Transformation”.

The conference was opened by Hon. Vincent Ssempijja Bamulangak, Cabinet Minister of Agriculture, Animal Industry & Fisheries. Dr. Ambrose Agona the Director General, NARO reaffirmed the need for cutting edge research and called on the Government of Uganda to take up the conference resolutions for implementation to ensure transformation and realization of the vision2040 for Uganda. The Conference was held at the Munyonyo Common Commonwealth Resort Hotel in Uganda.

The JKUAT Master’s in Research Methods: what a course!


By Nancy Chege

nancyThis is the story of how my life was beautifully transformed.

Many years ago, I enrolled for a Master’s degree in Agricultural Education which later turned into a nightmare. My statistical skills, data and information management skills were minimal and I felt completely helpless every time I thought of testing hypotheses. I could not differentiate between type one and type two errors, did not know there were assumptions guiding the use of ANOVA tests, and could not tell when to use regression, correlation or even simple descriptive analysis.  When people talked about p-values, f-tests, t-tests, chi-squared tests, post hoc analysis and the like, I had no clue what they were talking about! In an effort to address this challenge, I contacted my colleague lecturers in the TVET institution where I worked, but all was in vain.

As a last resort, I went online looking for answers, even though I had minimal computer skills. This quest became a turning point in my life as that was how I discovered the MSc Research Methods course sponsored by the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM). Even though I doubted I was going to get such a competitive scholarship, I applied anyway. I therefore could not believe it when, after a few weeks, I got a congratulatory message. RUFORUM had granted me a scholarship to undertake the MSc Research Methods course at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) in Kenya!

This marked the beginning of a journey that would transform my life.

The course captivated me so much that I felt I could do things i previously thought were impossible! Before commencing the face-to-face classes at JKUAT, students had to complete a pre-requisite online course on “e-Statistics Made Simple” . My computer skills were low at the time, making it difficult for me to navigate through the Statistical Service Centre website where the course was hosted. Besides, I thought my fingers were too big to press the keyboard keys and the cracks on my palms, resulting from many years of peeling bananas when cooking for my family, would be rejected by the computers. I owe a lot to my friend, Mary Onsarigo, who encouraged me and gave me initial lessons on navigating the course.

After a while I became an expert in doing assignments and some of my online classmates started asking me for help because of the speed at which I completed assignments. I started enjoying online facilitation too and learnt the online etiquette (netiquette) within a short time, thanks to our online facilitator.

We eventually qualified to enroll in the MSc Research Methods course and, on 13 October 2009, reported to JKUAT for the start of the MSc course. Our class was diverse, with some of my classmates coming from other African countries including Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Uganda and Ethiopia. Some of these students were learning English for the first time and I had given up on ever communicating with them due to language barrier. But wait… the facilitators had a plan to overcome that. We were placed in different discussion groups such that by the end of the course I had interacted with everyone, not to mention that my closest friend turned out to be my classmate from Burundi who had just learned to communicate in English. Through him I learned to be patient, even as he often scratched his head looking for English words to contribute to discussions. I endured such moments by continually saying to myself “patience patience patience…”. It paid off, because once we crossed the language barrier I was able to unravel the golden qualities in these classmates. These interactions contributed to my first transformation and raised the performance level of the class.

The way the course was delivered was superb! Difficult statistical concepts were simplified, even using games to simulate research designs.  All the courses offered were very useful, interesting and presented by excellent facilitators. Slowly, all my previous challenges were addressed one after the other. Descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, statistical modelling, data and information management, statistical computing, geographic information systems, mathematics, and research projects among other course units helped to unravel difficult mental blocks I had encountered previously.

My greatest joy from this course was that, as my understanding of statistical concepts grew, I was able to complete my other unfinished masters’ degree single handedly, including data analysis that had seemed insurmountable. I therefore graduated with two masters degrees in the same year!

Upon graduation, the first beneficiaries of this course were my boss and his deputy who were struggling to complete their master’s degree research. I helped them redesign their project proposals and showed them how to simplify their work by developing a plan for data analysis. It is perhaps no wonder that when the deputy’s term of service ended, my boss nominated me to become his deputy, a position I hold to date. Prior to enrolling for the MSc in Research Methods, I taught Agriculture and Biology. However, after the MSc training I started teaching Statistical Methods and Research Methods as well. I requested for further training in online facilitation and today I head the e-learning section in my institution.

Some research supervisors from universities have discovered my abilities and continually refer their students to me for guidance in proposal designing, data and information management and data analysis in addition to giving me part time jobs at their institutions. I have written two guides; one in Research Methods and the other in Statistical Methods (awaiting publication).

Today, when I go to libraries and come across theses and project reports, my first stop is the methodology chapter and the objectives. I regret to say that there are so many recommendations out there based on wrong data analysis. When I think about which of the recommendations we are implementing were generated from wrong analysis, I shudder in fear.

The training has helped me make new connections is the research community. Today, I can read complex scientific journals, understand statistical jokes, engage statisticians in logical discussions and hold an argument from a point of knowledge.  I am a member of the International Biometric Society and many online research methods groups where I answer questions about research methodology. I have also created online research methods groups to assist scholars. PhD students flood my inbox for help with data analysis because I am proficient with many statistical packages including GenStat, R, SPSS, and InStat. Recently, a student shed tears in my office after I gave her tutorials and supervised her data analysis. When it was over, she offered me some money which I declined to take. In tears, she explained how a statistician had asked for 500 US dollars for what I had done for free!  To me, helping her was a way of giving back to society. What I was given freely by RUFORUM I will give back freely, at least for now.

Aside from the technical knowledge, the greatest discovery I made through the MSc course was that, collapsing the artificial “African walls” gave us power to interact with each other. It is my commitment to continue shrinking these walls even further. My Vilakazi photo, above, is a symbol of this commitment. Partnerships that help to strengthen TVET institutions will further make this dream a greater reality for the several young people seeking opportunities to meaningfully engage in agriculture across Africa.

Long live RUFORUM and my facilitators:  Prof. Kihoro,  Dr. Ateka, Dr. Mary Mugo, Dr. Mamati, Prof. Obanda (all from JKUAT) Dr Oeba (KEFRI), Dr. Margaret Mangheni (Makerere University), Ric Coe (ICRAF), Jane Poole (ILRI),  Rodger (University of Reading, UK), Kurji and Mrs. McDonald (University of Nairobi), Jayne and Cheka (Zimbabwe). I pay special tribute to Prof. Adipala (RUFORUM) who even visited us in person to encourage us!

The Master of Science in Research Methods course at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture is a tailor-made regional programme developed through the support of the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM). The programme opened its doors to the first students in 2009.

Contact Nancy Chege by email at: waithereronancy@gmail.com